In his influential book The Righteous Mind: Intuition comes first and reasoning follows.

For example, if you buy a stock and never intend to sell this stock infinite time period. What is the future cash flows that you will receive from this stock. However, this situation is a bit theoretical, as investors normally invest in stocks for dividends as well as capital appreciation.

In such a case, there are two cash flows — Future Dividend Payments Future Selling Price Find the present values of these cash flows and add them together: If the stock pays no dividend, then the expected future cash flow will be the sale price of the stock.

Let us take an example. This dividend discount model example can be solved in 3 steps — Step 1 — Find the present value of Dividends for Year 1 and Year 2. Step 2 — Find the Present value of future selling price after two years.

Zero Growth Dividend Discount Model — This model assumes that all the dividends that are paid by the stock remain one and same forever until infinite. Constant Growth Dividend Discount Model — This dividend discount model assumes that dividends grow at a fixed percentage annually.

They are not variable and are constant throughout. The first one will be a fast initial phase, then a slower transition phase an then ultimately ends with a lower rate for the infinite period. We will discuss each one in greater detail now. Therefore, the stock price would be equal to the annual dividends divided by the required rate of return.

Ofcourse not as these companies do not give dividends and more importantly are growing at a much faster rate. Constant growth models can be used to value companies that are mature whose dividends increase steadily over the years.

Walmart is a mature company and we note that the dividends have steadily increased over this period. This company can be a candidate that can be valued using constant-growth Dividend Discount Model.

Constant growth Dividend Discount Model or DDM Model gives us the present value of an infinite stream of dividends that are growing at a constant rate. Constant-growth Dividend Discount Model formula is as per below — Where: This model solves the problems related to unsteady dividends by assuming that the company will experience different growth phases.

Variable growth rates can take different forms, you can even assume that the growth rates are different for each year. However, the most common form is one that assumes 3 different rates of growth: Primarily, the constant-growth rate model is extended, with each phase of growth calculated using the constant-growth method, but using different growth rates for the different phases.

The present values of each stage are added together to derive the intrinsic value of the stock. This can be applied as follows: Two-stage Dividend Discount Model; best suited for firms paying residual cash in dividends while having moderate growth.

As we note below such two companies — Coca-Cola and PepsiCo. In addition, these two companies show relatively stable growth rates. Assumptions Higher growth rate is expected the first period. This higher growth rate will drop at the end of the first period to a stable growth rate.

The dividend payout ratio is consistent with the expected growth rate. What is the value of the stock now? Calculate the dividends for each year till stable growth rate is reached The first component of value is the present value of the expected dividends during the high growth period.

Stable growth rate is achieved after 4 years. Hence, we calculate the Dividend profile until This can be estimated using the Constant Growth Dividend Discount Model Formula — We apply the dividend discount model formula in excel as seen below.Course has been added within the last 6 months.

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Definition. It is the weighted average of cost of equity, preferred, debt and any other capital and the weights used for averaging are the quanta of capital supplied by respective leslutinsduphoenix.com example, assume a firm with the cost of capital of debt and equity as 6% and 15% having an equal share in capital i.e.

, the weighted average cost of capital . Definition. It is the weighted average of cost of equity, preferred, debt and any other capital and the weights used for averaging are the quanta of capital supplied by respective leslutinsduphoenix.com example, assume a firm with the cost of capital of debt and equity as 6% and 15% having an equal share in capital i.e.

, the weighted average cost of capital would be % (6*50% + 15*50%).

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