When to Spell Out Numbers
The following are highlights of some of the more important aspects of 6th Edition APA formatting, but do not constitute the whole of APA style.
Please consult the manual held on reserve at Boatwright Library for a complete explanation of publishing guidelines. Jeff Kahn from the University of Illinois. General Guidelines When to Cite You should cite authors who have directly influenced your writing, whether it be their ideas, theories, or empirical data.
Citing an article implies that you have read the work you cited, so do not cite authors indirectly i. Cite any facts or figures that are not common knowledge. How many authors should you cite? For a standard empirical article, aim for 1 - 2 sources that best represent each key point you want to make.
For a literature review, you will probably use more.
This is because reviews are meant to introduce readers to the spectrum of information written about a certain topic.
If you are directly quoting an author, also include the page or paragraph number. Ending punctuation goes outside the parentheses. The study aimed to measure the participants' preferences in different types of music based on their age Baker, If you mention the author's name in your sentence, then put the publication year immediately following the name.
Baker measured correlations between age and music genre preference. One Work by Two Authors Include both authors' last names and the article's date of publication in parenthesis.
A classic study by Bandura, Ross and Ross showed strong evidence that children as young as two imitate the observed aggressive behavior of adults. Mean aggression scores for children exposed to aggressive adult models were significantly greater than those of children in non-aggressive or control conditions Bandura et al.
One Work by Six or More Authors From the get-go, cite only the last name of the first author, followed by "et al," "and others," or "and colleagues. Groups as Authors When citing an organization as an author, write out the organization the first time they are cited and list the abbreviation in the parenthetical citation.
Use double quotation marks inside the parentheses for articles, webpages, or chapter titles; italicize titles of periodicals, books, brochures, or reports.
Arrange two or more works by the same author s by date of publication. When citing more than one work by the same first author, add a suffix of a, b, c, etc.
This should be done sparingly. Also, use them when you are stating test items or participant directions verbatim. Try not to quote an entire sentence, as it makes the writing very choppy and usually comes off as lazy. If the quote is in the middle of your own sentence, end the quoted passage with quotation marks and put the parenthetical citation immediately after the passage, followed by any necessary punctuation.
Then continue with the sentence as it would be normally. Place the parenthetical citation at the end of the block, after the end punctuation.
Double-space all of the quote. Directly quoting online material In your parenthetical citation, give the author, year, and page numbers if possible. If there is no pagination, refer to the paragraph a quote was taken from. You may also change the punctuation mark at the end of a sentence to fit syntax.
All other changes, including italicizing or omitting words, must be indicated. Note that this only applied to direct quotes, not paraphrasing. Ordering Guidelines Alphabetization Rules. Order of Several Works by One Author. Single-author entries by the same author are ordered by year of publication.
Single-author entries come before multiple-author entries beginning with the same last name, regardless of publication year. Formatting Guidelines References should contain the author s' name spublication date, title, and publication information.
For each cited work, list the authors in the order they are presented on the manuscript. The order of author names signifies what type of contribution they made to the work, and should not be alphabetized. If the reference is from an online source, include the DOI.
This is a unique alphanumeric code assigned to online content, providing a permanent link to the information should the source url change. When a DOI is listed in your references, do not give any other retrieval information.VIII. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: Clear Attribution of Action; VII.
Using APA Style in Academic Writing: Precision and Clarity; VI. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: Et Al. V. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: Line Spacing; IV.
Using APA Style in Academic Writing: Abbreviations and Acronyms; III. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: The Power of Commas; II. The rules for writing numbers call for spelling out numbers under ten characters and numbers at the beginning of a sentence.
Read on to learn more! Numbers don't just show up in math assignments, but also in everyday writing. Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
For more information, please consult the Publication . There are rules for writing numbers in fiction. Learn when to use numerals and when to write out numbers. Learn the conventions for using numbers in novels. In APA Style, the rules for presenting numbers apply to the presentation of grade numbers.
This post will explain the most common formats. Grade + a Numeral. When the word grade is followed by a numeral, always capitalize grade and use a numeral for the grade number. Top on that list are APA Style rules related to the use of numbers.
We have devoted a number of blog posts to this topic. Below we expand on those that Onwuegbuzie and colleagues found to .