How to Create References When Words in the Title Are Italicized by Timothy McAdoo Although the title of a journal article or book chapter is not usually italicized, sometimes words within the title may be italicized. These include book or movie titles, letters or words as linguistic examples, statistics, scientific names for animalsand other items that would be italicized in text, per APA Style guidelines. Mental rotation and mirror-image discrimination.
Origins[ edit ] Alexander Hamiltonauthor of the majority of The Federalist Papers The Federal Convention sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which in turn submitted it to the states for ratification at the end of September On September 27,"Cato" first appeared in the New York press criticizing the proposition; "Brutus" followed on October 18, In response, Alexander Hamilton decided to launch a measured defense and extensive explanation of the proposed Constitution to the people of the state of New York.
He wrote in Federalist No. He enlisted John Jay, who after four strong essays Federalist Nos.
Gouverneur Morris and William Duer were also considered, however Morris turned down the invitation and Hamilton rejected three essays written by Duer.
Alexander Hamilton chose the pseudonymous name "Publius". While many other pieces representing both sides of the constitutional debate were written under Roman names, Albert Furtwangler contends that "'Publius' was a cut above ' Caesar ' or ' Brutus ' or even ' Cato. His more famous name, Publicola, meant 'friend of the people.
Chase's patriotism was questioned when Hamilton revealed that Chase had taken advantage of knowledge gained in Congress to try to dominate the flour market. Authorship[ edit ] At the time of publication, the authors of The Federalist Papers attempted to hide their identities for fear of prosecution.
Astute observers, however, correctly discerned the identities of Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Establishing authorial authenticity of the essays that comprise The Federalist Papers has not always been clear. After Alexander Hamilton died ina list emerged, claiming that he alone had written two-thirds of The Federalist essays.
Some believe that several of these essays were, in fact, written by James Madison No. The scholarly detective work of Douglass Adair in postulated the following assignments of authorship, corroborated in by a computer analysis of the text: Alexander Hamilton 51 articles: In a span of ten months, a total of 85 articles were written by the three men.
Hamilton, who had been a leading advocate of national constitutional reform throughout the s and represented New York at the Constitutional Conventionin became the first Secretary of the Treasurya post he held until his resignation in Madison, who is now acknowledged as the father of the Constitution—despite his repeated rejection of this honor during his lifetime,  became a leading member of the U.
House of Representatives from Virginia —Secretary of State —and ultimately the fourth President of the United States. Although written and published with haste, The Federalist articles were widely read and greatly influenced the shape of American political institutions.
At times, three to four new essays by Publius appeared in the papers in a single week. Garry Wills observes that this fast pace of production "overwhelmed" any possible response: And no time was given. However, they were only irregularly published outside New York, and in other parts of the country they were often overshadowed by local writers.
The high demand for the essays led to their publication in a more permanent form. On January 1,the New York publishing firm J. McLean announced that they would publish the first thirty-six essays as a bound volume; that volume was released on March 22,and was titled The Federalist Volume 1.
A second bound volume containing Federalist 37—77 and the yet to be published Federalist 78—85 was released on May InGeorge Hopkins published an American edition that similarly named the authors.
Hopkins wished as well that "the name of the writer should be prefixed to each number," but at this point Hamilton insisted that this was not to be, and the division of the essays among the three authors remained a secret.
InJacob Gideon published a new edition with a new listing of authors, based on a list provided by Madison. The difference between Hamilton's list and Madison's formed the basis for a dispute over the authorship of a dozen of the essays.
InHenry Dawson published an edition containing the original text of the papers, arguing that they should be preserved as they were written in that particular historical moment, not as edited by the authors years later.
Cooke for his edition of The Federalist; this edition used the newspaper texts for essay numbers 1—76 and the McLean edition for essay numbers 77—Writing the title takes just a fraction of the time you need to put down your work on paper. Nonetheless, this starting point is very important one, because it may influence the impact of your work and the number of readers that it will attract.
Francis Bacon once said that "knowledge is like waters; some descend from the heavens, some spring from the earth. For all knowledge proceeds from a twofold source - either from divine inspiration or .
Forty years ago today, on October 8, , the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) team began their historic, first ever in-depth scientific examination of the Shroud of Turin in a makeshift "laboratory" in the Royal Palace of Turin. The examination took place over a period of five days and nights, from October 8 through 13, Why a Scientific Format?
The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities.
One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a .
Sep 08, · To write any essay key points are the core part of any essay. You have to complete your essay as three parts; that is the introduction, body content and the conclusion. This is the main structure of an essay. I think that the essay title should be more attractive to the readers.
2] Use appropriate descriptive words: A good research paper title should contain key words used in the manuscript and should define the nature of the study.
Think about terms people would use to search for your study and include them in your title.