Namgye Chumbi was weeding his potato garden in Phakding by the Dudh Kosi on the morning of 4 August There weren't too many trekkers on the trail. The Dudh Kosi was tumbling noisily over boulders nearby.
An international team of scientists, including from the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research in Goa, who wanted to find out what caused such a large earthquake and tsunami have found that the Himalayas, several hundred kilometres away from Sumatra, was an accomplice.
The last possible tsunami source is a slow-moving fault north of Cuba, which has caused earthquakes in the past and possibly could create a tsunami that affected Florida and the Gulf Coast. The Himalayan Tsunami that took place on 16 June , created a vast damage. This damage of Uttarakhand can't be blamed on Nature's fury alone. Cloudbursts, landslides and flash floods are an annual affair in Uttarakhand. Himalayan Tsunami. The mid-June deluge affected tens of thousands of people, washed away hundreds of villages, and killed at least 6, people.
Results of their research, conducted as part of the International Ocean Discovery Programme, have been published in the May 26 issue of the journal Science. The Sumatran quake originated 30 km below the Indian Ocean floor, along the boundary where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate dives eastward under the Sunda Plate.
Sediment that eroded from the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau over millions of years and transported thousands of kilometres by the Ganges and other rivers had been piling up on the Indian Ocean floor. Scientists had thought that sediments piling up at plate boundaries, also known as subduction zones, would put the brakes on a rupture, making it less likely to start a huge tsunami.
But an examination of core samples drilled from the sediments feeding into the plate boundary between Indonesia and the Indian Ocean showed something different. From an oceanographic ship, the research team drilled down 1. They measured different properties of the sediments, and ran simulations to calculate how the sediment and rock behaves as it piles up and travels eastward kilometres toward the subduction zone.
The researchers found that, over time, the sheer volume of Himalayan grist was compressing the sediments sufficiently thick to generate temperatures warm enough to strengthen the sediment prior to subduction.
This resulted in a very large fault area and increase in the severity of the earthquake "and helped ensure that the full force of the rupturing fault reached the sea floor, amplifying the tsunami". According to the report, the finding has relevance for other subduction zone sites that also have thick, hot sediment and rock such as Cascadia off the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and Makran, which sits in the Arabian Sea off the coast between Iran and Pakistan.
Proximity to the trench and therefore the depth of water are other factors that decide if the earthquake would actually lead to a tsunami.
Jayaraman is a veteran science journalist. He can be contacted at killugudi hotmail.Jun 21, · There have been seven similar flood-related disasters in Rudraprayag in the last 34 years. The administration should have learnt, this is not the first time such a disaster has hit us.
Map of the eastern Indian Ocean and surrounding regions. The Indo-Australian plate was the source of the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami subducts beneath the Eurasian plate at the subduction zone (rupture area shaded in yellow). The Himalayan Tsunami that took place on 16 June , created a vast damage.
This damage of Uttarakhand can't be blamed on Nature's fury alone. Cloudbursts, landslides and flash floods are an annual affair in Uttarakhand.
Most likely the next target will be the New Madrid fault line in the South- Midwestern United States, according to threats originating from the Nazi George Bush Senior faction of the U.S. government. A man surveys damage caused by an earthquake and tsunami in Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, on Sat., Sept.
29, A magnitude quake struck the region at dusk Friday, Sept. 28, Unlike the tsunami that devastated south Asia, this wave was not was prompted by an earthquake hundreds of miles out to sea.
Instead it was a localised tsunami resulting from an earthquake.