Evaluation[ edit ] Hulin and Judge have noted that job satisfaction includes multidimensional psychological responses to an individual's job, and that these personal responses have cognitive evaluativeaffective or emotionaland behavioral components. Affective job satisfaction is a subjective construct representing an emotional feeling individuals have about their job. Cognitive job satisfaction is a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction can be unidimensional if it comprises evaluation of just one facet of a job, such as pay or maternity leave, or multidimensional if two or more facets of a job are simultaneously evaluated.
Saari and Timothy A. Judge This article identifies three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular—job satisfaction: Suggestions for practition- ers are provided on how to close the gaps in knowledge and for evaluating implemented prac- tices.
Future research will likely focus on greater understanding of personal characteristics, such as emotion, in defining job satisfaction and how employee attitudes influence organizational performance. Within each agers in organizations.
There is confusion gap area, we provide a review of the scien- and debate among practitioners on the topic tific research and recommendations for of employee attitudes and job satisfaction— practitioners related to the research find- even at Employee attitudes and job satisfaction saari judge time when employees are increas- ings.
In the final section, additional recom- ingly important for organizational success mendations for enhancing organizational and competitiveness. Therefore, the purpose practice in the area of employee attitudes of this article is to provide greater under- and job satisfaction are described, along standing of the research on this topic and with suggestions for evaluating the imple- give recommendations related to the major mented practices.
Employees have attitudes oras well as based on our experience, viewpoints about many aspects of their jobs, the major practitioner knowledge gaps in their careers, and their organizations.
Published online in Wiley InterScience www. Evidence even indicates though much of our specific focus will con- that the job satisfaction of identical twins Evidence even cern job satisfaction.
Implicit in differences in job satisfaction across em- similar. Conversely, when we have feelings, Despite its contributions to our under- we think about what we feel.
Cognition and standing of the causes of job satisfaction, affect are thus inextricably linked, in our psy- one of the limitations in this literature is that chology and even in our biology.
Thus, when it is not yet informative as to how exactly dis- evaluating our jobs, as when we assess most positions affect job satisfaction Erez, For ex- Gap 1—The Causes of Employee ample, Weiss and Cropanzano sug- Attitudes gest that disposition may influence the experience of emotionally significant events The first major practitioner knowledge gap at work, which in turn influences job satis- we will address is the causes of employee at- faction.
Similarly, Brief and Mo- titudes and job satisfaction. In general, HR towidlo have developed theoretical practitioners understand the importance of models in an attempt to better understand the work situation as a cause of employee at- the relationship between dispositions and job titudes, and it is an area HR can help influ- satisfaction.
In addition, one of the most tion. They also found that one of the primary important areas of the work situation to in- causes of the relationship was through the fluence job satisfaction—the work itself—is perception of the job itself. Thus, it appears often overlooked by practitioners when ad- that the most important situational effect on dressing job satisfaction.
In terms of practical recommenda- impact will help enhance their job satisfaction. The continued globalization of or- people are selected and ganizations poses new challenges for HR As discussed earlier, the work situation also placed into jobs practitioners, and the available research on matters in terms of job satisfaction and or- most cross-cultural organizational and human re- ganization impact.
Contrary to some com- appropriate for sources issues can help them better under- monly held practitioner beliefs, the most no- them, which, in stand and guide practice Erez, ; House, table situational influence on job satisfaction turn, will help enhance their ; Triandis, He conducted research on employee types of jobs show that when employees are attitude data in 67 countries and found that asked to evaluate different facets of their job the data grouped into four major dimensions such as supervision, pay, promotion opportu- and that countries systematically varied nities, coworkers, and so forth, the nature of along these dimensions.
The four cross-cul- the work itself generally emerges as the most tural dimensions are: For example, satisfaction by ensuring work is as interest- the United States was found to be high on ing and challenging as possible.
Unfortu- individualism, low on power distance, and nately, some managers think employees are low on uncertainty avoidance thus high on most desirous of pay to the exclusion of other risk takingwhereas Mexico was high on job attributes such as interesting work.
For collectivism, high on power distance, and example, in a study examining the impor- high on uncertainty avoidance. The importance of culture has outcomes like employee retention e. Thus, to understand what was trivial.EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION Lise M.
Saari and Timothy A. Judge This article identifies three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular—job satisfaction: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of .
How to Cite. Saari, L. M.
and Judge, T. A. (), Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Hum.
Resour. Manage., – doi: /hrm (Judge et al., ) In other words, life satisfaction may positively influence job satisfaction and job satisfaction will also positively influence life satisfaction. Conversely, some research suggests that life satisfaction often precedes and is a good predictor of job satisfaction (Judge et al., ).
Saari & Judge () “identify major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes and job satisfaction” (Saari & Judge. Abstract.
This article identifies three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular—job satisfaction: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and (3) how to measure and influence employee .
The article by Saari and Judge, “Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction” (), discusses not only what those gaps are but what could be done to bridge those gaps. Employee Attitudes The first of the 3 knowledge gaps between HR practice and the scientific research is finding out what the causes of employee attitudes are.