Vitellius 69 The Roman Empire "officially" begins by tradition in 27 BC when Octavian receives the title "Augustus" -- which then becomes the name by which we know him. We might think that the Empire, Imperium, begins with Augustus becoming Emperor, Imperator, but that is not the case. Imperator simply means "commander," and this had long been in use with a specific meaning.
Public domain Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great, was an empress of Russia who ruled fromthe longest reign of any female Russian leader. Her accomplishments are often overshadowed by the legends and rumors about her scandalous personal life.
Sophie von Anhalt-Zerbst was born inthe daughter of a Prussian prince. She took on the name Catherine, or Ekaterina Alekseyevna. Peter was regarded by some as inept, and after only six months on the throne, Catherine overthrew him with the aid of Grigory Orlov, a military officer with whom she was having an affair.
Her husband was later arrested and killed, securing her position on the throne. Some regard Catherine as a socially enlightened ruler; she exchanged correspondence with the French philosopher Voltaire.
She was a patron of the arts; the Hermitage Museum opened during her reign, beginning as part of her personal collection. Under her influence, Russians adopted western European philosophies and culture.
While it was Peter I reign that brought about reforms that gave women greater freedom to pursue education it was during the midth century, the time that Catherine the Great rose to power, that female artists also rose in Russia. Among the most prolific Russian female artists was Princess Natalia Ivanovna Kurakina lived who wrote at least 45 songs.
Power and love Catherine was also a successful military ruler; her troops conquered a great deal of new territory. She also allowed a system of serfdom to continue in Russia, something that would contribute to a full-fledged revolt led by a pretender to the throne.
The two of them hated each other, and he ruled ineptly. He embarked on a seemingly pointless military campaign against Denmark, alienated the Orthodox clergy by attempting to take over church lands and even tried to marry his mistress.
Catherine got the jump on the others through her romantic relationship with Grigory Orlov, an officer in the Russian Guards. With the support of local military units, Catherine was proclaimed Empress of Russia in July while her husband was away from St.
Peter III was then arrested, forced to abdicate the throne and ultimately killed. Orlov would be one of many lovers that Catherine would have in her life. She alluded to her habit of often switching lovers in a letter she wrote to Prince Grigory Potemkin, a military leader with whom she had an affair in He noted that with the death of the Polish king, Augustus III, inshe was able to put one of her lovers, Stanislaw Poniatowski, on the Polish throne.
Poniatowski and Catherine ended up getting more than they bargained for.
This issue led to a rebellion, and in the end Russian troops were sent into Poland to support Poniatowski. The presence of these Russian troops raised concerns among neighboring states that Russia had ambitions on their own territories, wrote researcher Robert Massie in his book "Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman" Random House, Massie noted that the sultan of Turkey felt the most threatened, fearing that Russian troops in Poland would be able to pour into the Balkans, threatening Istanbul itself.
After discussions with French diplomats, and an incident with Russian troops at the Turkish border in OctoberTurkey declared war on Russia. Also ina Russian naval squadron reached the eastern Mediterranean, inflicting a defeat on the Turkish fleet.
InPoland was partitioned between Russia, Austria and Prussia, with subsequent partitions occurring in and Additionally, inafter Russian troops were in a position to threaten Istanbul, Turkey sued for peace, with Russia gaining territories on the Black Sea coast and the Sea of Azov area.
Serfdom and rebellion While Catherine enjoyed great military success, internally her country had a precarious social structure. Much of the population lived as serfs, in essence a form of slave.
Their living conditions were horrible; Massie noted that few of the serfs working in the mines, foundries and factories lived to middle age. Although Catherine is said to have personally opposed the institution, she tolerated it. Inher government even published a decree condemning serfs who protested about their conditions.
Death and succession Catherine died quietly in her bed on Nov. After her death, her enemies spread gossip about her that has endured for centuries: Others claimed that she died on the toilet.
Neither rumor was true. In any event, Paul did not last long on the throne; he was assassinated in While the institution of serfdom would gradually be abolished in Russia during the 19th century, the wide gap in wealth between the nobility and peasantry would continue on.
These social problems came to a boiling point once again after Russia entered World War I in H.I.M. Yekaterina II Alexeyevna "the Great," Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias Catherine II (Russian: Екатери́на II Алексе́евна, tr.: Yekaterina II Alexeyevna ; April 21, — November 6, (O.S.)), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as czarina of Russia from June 28, , to her death.
Lalibela Should be Patronized and Renovated by Ethiopian Architects and Engineers IDEA Editorial November 14, One of the magnificent historical sites in Ethiopia is the town of Lalibela in the north-central part of the country; and the splendid eleven rock-hewn churches in that town are a continuation of Aksumite architecture in the construction of hewn edifices; in Tigray alone there are.
Catherine the Great – Empress of Russia. Despite being a foreigner, Catherine the Great of Russia proved a surprisingly popular ruler. Perhaps conscious of the need to constantly shore up support among the nobility, she was a pragmatic and often times populist leader of Russia.
In foreign affairs she oversaw a massive expansion of Russian territory. The most powerful Empress in the history of Russia, unstoppable conqueror, enlightened monarch and a patron of arts and literature; Catherine the Great was a ruler like no other.
Catherine the Great – Empress of All Russia – Slavorum. + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day?
Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Empress Catherine the Great, and an Autocrat of all the Russias Empress Catherine was born as Sophie Augusta Frederica of Anhalt-Zerbst (Principality of Holy Roman Empire) on 2 May in a family of high nobility but not belonging to a royal family.