The Eastern Church has its own head - the Patriarch of Constantinople. Formally under the Roman Pope, Constantinople church apex actually had a special view on the principles of church structure, but in fact wanted to control the eastern part of the world without the intervention of the Pope. After the Western church had made a little addendum to the Christian symbols stating that the Holy Spirit is both God the Father and by God the Son, Pope and Patriarch both fulminated anathema on each other. That is how the well-known division of the churches into Catholic and Orthodox began.
The three-barred cross of the Russian Orthodox Church The Kievan period[ edit ] The Christian community that developed into what is now known as the Russian Orthodox Church is traditionally said to have been founded by the Apostle Andrewwho is thought to have visited Scythia and Greek colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea.
According to one of the legends, Andrew reached the future location of Kiev and foretold the foundation of a great Christian city. By the end of the first millennium AD, eastern Slavic lands started to come under the cultural influence of the Eastern Roman Empire. There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatiosc.
By the midth century, there was already a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Byzantine Greek priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion.
Transfer of the see to Moscow; de facto independence of the Moscow Church[ edit ] As Kiev was losing its political, cultural, and economical significance due to the Mongol invasionMetropolitan Maximus moved to Vladimir in ; his successor, Metropolitan Peter moved the residence to Moscow in Following the tribulations of the Mongol invasion, the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival and life of the Russian state.
Despite the politically motivated murders of Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of Tverthe Mongols were generally tolerant and even granted tax exemption to the Church. Such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and Metropolitan Alexis helped the country to withstand years of Tatar oppression, and to expand both economically and spiritually.
The Trinity monastery founded by Sergius of Radonezh became the setting for the flourishing of spiritual art, exemplified by the work of Andrey Rublevamong others. The followers of Sergius founded four hundred monasteries, thus greatly extending the geographical extent of the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
Russian Orthodox monks defended the Trinity monastery against Polish troops during the Time of Troubles. Inat the Council of Florencesome Orthodox hierarchs from Byzantium as well as Metropolitan Isidorewho represented the Russian Church, signed a union with the Roman Churchwhereby the Eastern Church would recognise the primacy of the Pope.
Isidore was in the same year removed from his position as an apostate and expelled from Moscow. The Russian metropolitanate remained effectively vacant for the next few years due largely to the dominance of Uniates in Constantinople then.
In DecemberJonasa Russian bishop, was installed by the Council of Russian bishops in Moscow as Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia  with permanent residence in Moscow without the consent from Constantinople.
This occurred five years prior to the fall of Constantinople in and, unintentionally, signified the beginning of an effectively independent church structure in the Moscow North-Eastern Russian part of the Russian Church.
Subsequently, there developed a theory in Moscow that saw Moscow as the Third Romethe legitimate successor to Constantinople, and the Primate of the Moscow Church as head of all the Russian Church.
Meanwhile, the newly established in Russian Orthodox initially Uniate metropolitanate in Kiev then in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and subsequently in the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth continued under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical See untilwhen it was transferred to the jurisdiction of Moscow.
The reign of Ivan III and his successor was plagued by a number of heresies and controversies. One partyled by Nil Sorsky and Vassian Kosoycalled for the secularisation of monastic properties. They were opposed by the influential Joseph of Volotskwho defended ecclesiastical ownership of land and property.
New sects sprang up, some of which showed a tendency to revert to Mosaic law: In the s, Metropolitan Macarius codified Russian hagiography and convened a number of church synods, which culminated in the Hundred Chapter Council of This Council unified church ceremonies and duties throughout the Moscow Church.
At the demand of the church hierarchy, the government lost its jurisdiction over ecclesiastics. Reinforced by these reforms, the Moscow Church felt powerful enough to occasionally challenge the policies of the tsar. Metropolitan Philipin particular, decried the abuses of Ivan the Terriblewho eventually engineered his deposition and murder.
Painting by Vasily Perov During the reign of Tsar Fyodor I his brother-in-law Boris Godunov contacted the Ecumenical Patriarch, who "was much embarrassed for want of funds,"  with a view to establishing a patriarchal see in Moscow. The four other patriarchs have recognized the Moscow Patriarchate as one of the five honourable Patriarchates.
During the next half a century, when the tsardom was weak, the patriarchs notably Hermogenes and Philaret would help run the state along with and sometimes instead of the tsars. At the urging of the Zealots of Pietyin Patriarch Nikon of Moscow resolved to centralize power that had been distributed locally, while conforming Russian Orthodox rites and rituals to those of the Greek Orthodox Churchas interpreted by pundits from the Kiev Ecclesiastical Academy.
For instance, he insisted that Russian Christians cross themselves with three fingers, rather than the then-traditional two. This aroused antipathy among a substantial section of believers, who saw the changed rites as heresy, although the extent to which these changes can be regarded as minor or major ritual significance remains open to debate.
After the implementation of these innovations at the church council of —, the Church anathematized and suppressed those who acted contrary to them with the support of Muscovite state power.The Eastern Orthodox faith is the second-largest Christian church in the world, with nearly million adherents.
It is a faith diverse in its geography, spanning Eastern Europe, Russia and parts of the Middle East. While the church as a whole retains an identity and theology, the self-governing. For Orthodox liturgy, prayers, icons, beliefs, news, etc., we refer you to The Orthodox Page in America, 6 the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, 7 and other web sites.
The term " Orthodox," when capitalized, usually refers to the group of Orthodox Christian faith groups mentioned above. This classic, English-language work on the Russian Orthodox Church covers the history of Orthodoxy in Russia, the elements of Orthodox liturgical worship, the piety of individual Orthodox Christians, the organization of Orthodox hierarchy, and the relationship between the Russian church and other Christian communions in the early twentieth century.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox leslutinsduphoenix.com is the oldest Slavic Orthodox Church with some 6 million members in the Republic of Bulgaria and between and million members in a number of European countries, the Americas and leslutinsduphoenix.comr: Saint Andrew, Boris I of Bulgaria.
This volume presents a thorough, scholarly history of the Orthodox Church in Russia, starting with the introduction of Christianity to Russia in , and leading all the way up to the Most Holy Synod of The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, with its headquarters located in the City of New York, is an Eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, The mission of the Archdiocese is to proclaim the Gospel of Christ, to teach and spread the Orthodox Christian faith, to energize, cultivate, and guide the life of the Church in the United States of America according to the Orthodox.