With its large Muslim and Jewish populations, medieval Spain was the only multiracial and multireligious country in western Europe, and much of the development of Spanish civilization in religion, literature, art, and architecture during the later Middle Ages stemmed from this fact. The… Over centuries, the Jewish community in Spain had flourished and grown in numbers and influence, though anti-Semitism had surfaced from time to time. The pogroms of were especially brutal, and the threat of violence hung over the Jewish community in Spain. Faced with the choice between baptism and death, the number of nominal converts to the Christian faith soon became very great.
See Article History Alternative Titles: It occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian Peninsulawhich it shares with its smaller neighbour Portugal. Spain is a storied country of stone castles, snowcapped mountains, vast monuments, and sophisticated cities, all of which have made it a favoured travel destination.
The country is geographically and culturally diverse. Its heartland is the Mesetaa broad central plateau half a mile above sea level. To the northwest is the Cantabrian Mountainsa rugged range in which heavily forested, rain-swept valleys are interspersed with tall peaks.
Lined with palm trees, rosemary bushes, and other tropical vegetation, the southeastern Mediterranean coast and the Balearic Islands enjoy a gentle climate, drawing millions of visitors and retirees, especially from northern Europe.
Spain A village in Andalusia, Spain, showing housing typical of the region. The Andalusian capital of Sevilla Seville is famed for its musical culture and traditional folkways; the Catalonian capital of Barcelona for its secular architecture and maritime industry; and the national capital of Madrid for its winding streets, its museums and bookstores, and its around-the-clock lifestyle.
Alcazar fortress of Toledo, Spain. Torre AgbarTorre Agbar skyscraper at night in Barcelona. It comes from the first sob and the first kiss.
For years afterward, Spanish explorers and conquerors traveled the world, claiming huge territories for the Spanish crown, a succession of Castilian, Aragonese, Habsburgand Bourbon rulers.
For generations Spain was arguably the richest country in the world, and certainly the most far-flung. The country has been ruled since then by a succession of elected governments, some socialist, some conservativebut all devoted to democracy.
Elsewhere the country is bounded by water: Ibiza city and port, Spain. Josef Muench Relief Spain accounts for five-sixths of the Iberian Peninsula, the roughly quadrilateral southwestern tip of Europe that separates the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean.
Most of Spain comprises a large plateau the Meseta Central divided by a mountain range, the Central Sierra Sistema Centralwhich trends west-southwest to east-northeast. Several mountains border the plateau: There are two major depressions, that of the Ebro River in the northeast and that of the Guadalquivir River in the southwest.
Along the Mediterranean seaboard there are coastal plains, some with lagoons e. Offshore in the Mediterranean, the Balearic Islands are an unsubmerged portion of the Baetic Cordillera. The Canary Islands in the Atlantic are of volcanic origin and contain the highest peak on Spanish territory, Teide Peakwhich rises to 12, feet 3, metres on the island of Tenerife.
The entire western half of Iberiawith the exception of the extreme south, is composed of ancient Hercynian rocks; geologists refer to this Hercynian block as the Meseta Central.
It constitutes a relatively stable platform around which younger sediments accumulated, especially on the Mediterranean side. In due course these sediments were pushed by major earth movements into mountain ranges. The term meseta is also used by geographers and local toponymy to designate the dominating relief unit of central Iberia.
As a result, the Meseta Central defined by relief is subdivided by geology into a crystalline west granites and gneisses and a sedimentary east mainly clays and limestones.
Its relief is more diverse, however, owing to heavy faulting and warping caused by volcanic activity around the Calatrava Plain and to two complex river systems the Guadiana and the Tagus separated by mountains. Its southern plains rise gradually to the Sierra Morena.
The southeastern side of this range drops almost vertically by more than 3, feet 1, metres to the Guadalquivir depression. Dividing the northern and southern Mesetas are the Central Sierras, one of the outstanding features of the Iberian massif.
In contrast, the granitic Galician mountains, at the northwestern end of the Hercynian block, have an average elevation of only 1, feet metresdecreasing toward the deeply indented ria coast of the Atlantic seaboard.
Part of Alpine Europe, the Pyrenees form a massive mountain range that stretches from the Mediterranean Sea to the Bay of Biscay, a distance of some miles km. The range comprises a series of parallel zones: The highest peaks, formed from a core of ancient crystalline rocks, are found in the central Pyrenees—notably Aneto Peak at 11, feet 3, metres —but those of the west, including Anie Peak at 8, feet 2, metresare not much lower.
The mountains fall steeply on the northern side but descend in terraces to the Ebro River trough in the south. The outer zones of the Pyrenees are composed of sedimentary rocks.
Relief on the nearly horizontal sedimentary strata of the Ebro depression is mostly plain or plateau, except at the eastern end where the Ebro River penetrates the mountains to reach the Mediterranean Sea.
Cows grazing high in the central Pyrenees, Huesca province, Spain. In the southeast the Iberian Cordillera links with the Baetic Cordilleraalso a result of Alpine earth movements.
On their northern and northwestern sides they flank the low-lying and fairly flat Guadalquivir basin, the average elevation of which is only feet metres on mainly clay strata.The Impact of the Potato Jeff Chapman relates the story of history’s most important vegetable.
DURING HIS SCIENTIFIC expedition to Patagonia aboard HMS Beagle, British naturalist Charles Darwin became fascinated by a surprisingly adaptable South American leslutinsduphoenix.com his log, Darwin wrote: "It is remarkable that the same plant should be found on the sterile mountains of Central Chile, where a.
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Uchronia: The Alternate History List is a bibliography of over novels, stories, essays and other printed material involving the "what ifs" of history.
The genre has a variety of names, but it is best known as alternate history. In an alternate history, one or more past events are changed and the subsequent effects on history somehow .
Spanish Inquisition, (–), judicial institution ostensibly established to combat heresy in leslutinsduphoenix.com practice, the Spanish Inquisition served to consolidate power in the monarchy of the newly unified Spanish kingdom, but it achieved that end through infamously brutal methods.
The official Colonial Williamsburg history and citizenship site featuring colonial history, research, podcasts, teacher resources, kid's games, and support the Foundation's mission. Uchronia: The Alternate History List is a bibliography of over novels, stories, essays and other printed material involving the "what ifs" of history.
The genre has a variety of names, but it is best known as alternate history. In an alternate history, one or more past events are changed and the subsequent effects on history somehow described.