Today, over 20 million people live here. Migration has been the main driver for this change. In New South Wales, four out of every ten people are either migrants or the children of migrants. Clearly Australia has a rich migration history.
See Article History Alternative Title: Commonwealth of Australia Australia, the smallest continent and one of the largest countries on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. To the south, Australian jurisdiction extends a further miles km to the southern extremity of the island of Tasmaniaand in the north it extends to the southern shores of Papua New Guinea.
In simple physical terms, the age of much of the continent is certainly impressive—most of the rocks providing the foundation of Australian landforms were formed during Precambrian and Paleozoic time some 4.
Australia is the last of lands only in the sense that it was the last continent, apart from Antarctica, to be explored by Europeans. At least 60, years before European explorers sailed into the South Pacific, the first Aboriginal explorers had arrived from Asiaand by 20, years ago they had spread throughout the mainland and its chief island outlier, Tasmania.
When Captain Arthur Phillip of the British Royal Navy landed with the First Fleet at Botany Bay inthere may have been betweenandAboriginals, though some estimates are much higher. Largely nomadic hunters and gatherers, the Aboriginals had already transformed the primeval landscape, principally by the use of fire, and, contrary to common European perceptions, they had established robustsemipermanent settlements in well-favoured localities.
There was, rather, a series of comparatively independent expansions from the margins of the various colonies, which were not joined in an independent federated union until Clair National Park, Tasmania, Australia. Australian Scenics The most striking characteristics of the vast country are its global isolation, its low relief, and the aridity of much of its surface.
If, like the English novelist D. Its unique flora and fauna include hundreds of kinds of eucalyptus trees and the only egg-laying mammals on Earth, the platypus and echidna.
Other plants and animals associated with Australia are various acacias Acacia pycnantha [golden wattle] is the national flower and dingoes, kangaroos, koalas, and kookaburras. But an equally significant feature of modern Australian society is the representation of a broad spectrum of cultures drawn from many lands, a development stemming from immigration that is transforming the strong Anglo-Celtic orientation of Australian culture.
Assimilation, of course, is seldom a quick and easy process, and minority rights, multiculturalism, and race-related issues have played a large part in contemporary Australian politics.
In the late s these issues sparked a conservative backlash. Australia has a federal form of government, with a national government for the Commonwealth of Australia and individual state governments those of New South WalesVictoriaQueenslandSouth AustraliaWestern Australiaand Tasmania.
Each state has a constitution, and its government exercises a limited degree of sovereignty. There are also two internal territories: Northern Territoryestablished as a self-governing territory inand the Australian Capital Territory including the city of Canberrawhich attained self-governing status in Papua New Guinea, formerly an Australian external territory, gained its independence in Historically part of the British Empire and now a member of the CommonwealthAustralia is a relatively prosperous independent country.
Australians are in many respects fortunate in that they do not share their continent—which is only a little smaller than the United States —with any other country.
Extremely remote from their traditional allies and trading partners—it is some 12, miles 19, km from Australia to Great Britain via the Indian Ocean and the Suez Canal and about 7, miles 11, km across the Pacific Ocean to the west coast of the United States—Australians have become more interested in the proximity of huge potential markets in Asia and in the highly competitive industrialized economies of ChinaJapanSouth Koreaand Taiwan.
Geologic history The earliest known manifestations of the geologic record of the Australian continent are 4. Based on that and other findings, the Precambrian rocks in Australia have been determined to range in age from about 3.
They are succeeded by rocks of the Paleozoic Erawhich extended to about million years ago; of the Mesozoic Erawhich lasted until about 66 million years ago; and of the Cenozoic Erathe past 66 million years. For millions of years Australia was part of the supercontinent of Pangaea and subsequently its southern segment, Gondwanaland or Gondwana.
Its separate existence was finally assured by the severing of the last connection between Tasmania and Antarctica, but it has been drifting toward the Southeast Asian landmass. As a continent, Australia thus encompasses two extremes: Geologic history of the Earth.
General considerations Tectonic framework The map of the structural features of Australia and the surrounding region shows the distribution of the main tectonic units. The primary distinction is between the plates of oceanic lithospheregenerated within the past million years by seafloor spreading at the oceanic ridges, and the continental lithosphere, accumulated over the past 4 billion years.
The lithosphere is the outer rock shell of the Earth that consists of the crust and the uppermost portion of the underlying mantle; see plate tectonics. The largest area of oldest rocks is the Western Shieldcomprising the western half of the continent, which has been eroded to a low relief.
The youngest rocks are found in the growing fold belt of the Banda arcs and in New Guinea at the boundary between the Indian-Australian plate and the Eurasian and Pacific plates. The first is in shields, such as the Yilgarn and Pilbara blocks of the Western Shield, enclosed by later orogenic mountain belts.
The second is as the basement to a younger cover of Phanerozoic sediment deposited during the past million years ; for example, all the sedimentary basins west of the Tasman Line are underlain by Precambrian basement. The third is as relicts in younger orogenic belts, as in the Georgetown Inlier of northern Queensland and in the western half of Tasmania.
Rocks of Paleozoic age occur either in flat-lying sedimentary basins, such as the Canning Basinor within belts, such as the east—west-trending Amadeus Transverse Zone and north-trending Tasman Fold Belt.Mar 29, · Explore Victorian Britain and the Industrial Revolution.
Was Britain the world's superpower during Queen Victoria's reign? The History of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies. Aboriginal Australians arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast Asia between 40, and 70, years ago.
The artistic, musical and spiritual traditions they established are among the longest surviving such. Australia’s six states became a nation under a single constitution on 1 January Today people from more than countries make up the Australian community, and more than languages are spoken in Australian homes.
The History of Australia (–) refers to the history of the indigenous and colonial peoples of the Australian continent during the year period which preceded the foundation of the Commonwealth of Australia in A BRIEF HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA.
By Tim Lambert. Dedicated to Frederick Wilde. The First Convicts Transported To Australia. During the 17th century and 18th century European explorers reached Australia. Australian Aboriginal history timeline Australian Aboriginal history is the only history that grows both ways—forward into the present and backwards into the past as new scientific methods indicate that archaeological sites are much older than originally thought.